Tuesday, August 5, 2014

What is Solitary Bone Plasmacytoma And Its Prognosis?

A plasmacytoma is really a malignant plasma cell tumor. Plasmacytoma usually happens when cancer starts within the plasma cells, or whitened bloodstream cells, that leave antibodies. Malignant plasma cells typically don't die because they should, but rather accumulate and form a tumor referred to as a plasmacytoma. Plasmacytomas usually form in both the bone marrow or perhaps in soft tissue like the wind pipe. Plasmacytoma from the bone may spread with other bones and be multiple myeloma.

A plasmacytoma is really a discrete, solitary mass of neoplastic monoclonal plasma cells either in bone or soft tissue (extramedullary). It's a rare tumor that's connected with latent systemic disease in nearly all affected patients. It may be regarded as one counterpart of multiple myeloma.

Solitary bone plasmacytoma is really a plasma cell disorder indicated through the formation of merely one tumor within the bone.

The tumor, also known as a plasmacytoma, happens when abnormal plasma cells coming initially from within the bone marrow accumulate around the interior top of the bone. However, in patients with solitary bone plasmacytoma, these malignant plasma cells are usually not present through the bone marrow itself or perhaps in the soft tissue all around the bone.

Plasma cells form part from the defense mechanisms simply because they make the antibodies that provide immunity to disease. The normal defense mechanisms has a different sort of plasma cell for every kind of antibody that's created. Healthy plasma cells typically get old and die to become changed by new cells. When cancer from the plasma cells happens, new cells can build too rapidly and old cells can live too lengthy. The existence of excess plasma cells in your body can result in the introduction of a tumor within the bone marrow or extracellular tissue.

The extramedullary tissue would be the soft tissue from the head, throat, and wind pipe. When plasmacytomas form in extramedullary tissue, they could possibly be healed with a mix of surgery and radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Plasmacytoma from the bone is usually given radiotherapy. Plasmacytoma could be identified through bloodstream tests, urinalysis, X-sun rays, and biopsy.

What's Solitary Bone Plasmactyoma?

In patients with solitary bone plasmacytoma, abnormal plasma cells within the bone marrow aggregate to create a single tumor in almost any bone in your body.

Most generally, the tumor evolves inside a bone across the spine. So as of lowering frequency, the tumor might also develop within the pelvis, ribs, upper limbs, face, skull, femur, and sternum.

Unlike multiple myeloma, solitary bone plasmacytoma doesn't include the existence of abnormal plasma cells through the bone marrow or perhaps in the soft tissue all around the bone, an ailment referred to as extramedullary myeloma. In some instances, however, patients with solitary bone plasmacytoma might also have a tiny bit of abnormal plasma cells within the bone marrow.

Based on Dr. Vincent Rajkumar from the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, experts don't completely understand how abnormal plasma cells (which originate within the bone marrow) can travel in the bone marrow to the top of bone and form a tumor in patients with solitary bone plasmacytoma.

Chances are, however, that the position of the bone tumor is identical location where the abnormal plasma cells initially came from within the bone marrow.

“That is the reason why in roughly 50 % of cases, solitary bone plasmacytoma is curable by radiating that certain site alone,” stated Dr. Rajkumar.

Solitary Bone Plasmacytoma Prognosis

The prognosis for plasmacytoma is dependent around the stage from the cancer, a person's all around health and age, and also the cancer's reaction to treatment. Plasmacytoma is staged based on whether or not this happens within the extramedullary tissue or in one bone. A remote plasmacytoma happens within the bone marrow of 1 bone, occupies a maximum of 5 % from the marrow of this bone, and results in no overt signs and symptoms of cancer. An extramedullary plasmacytoma happens within the soft tissue from the throat, wind pipe, or head and never in almost any bones. The prognosis for extramedullary plasmacytoma is generally much better than that for isolated plasmacytoma.

When plasmacytoma propagates to multiple bones, the resulting condition is usually referred to as multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma could be a slow-growing cancer that does not cause signs and symptoms for a long time. Multiple myeloma can impair the bone marrow's capability to produce sufficient resources of bloodstream cells. Signs and symptoms may include bone discomfort, fatigue, recurrent infection, and simply fractured bones.

Muliple myeloma can be challenging to deal with. Patients in early stages from the disease are frequently supervised with no treatment. Treatment generally starts once the signs and symptoms be severe.

Tuesday, July 24, 2012

Bone Marrow Transplant

Bone marrow is a spongy tissue found inside bones. Bone marrow contains stem cells which are capable of transforming into cartilage bone, blood cells, and platelets. As stem cells can transform and grow into different types of cells, bone marrow can be transplanted from one person to another.

Two types of bone marrow are present in human being – red marrow and yellow marrow. The basic function of bone marrow is to produce new blood cells. Disorders of bone marrow may lead to a number of diseases including cancer. Cancers of the bone marrow are classified into different kinds depending on the affectation of neoplasm. There are a number of treatments for bone marrow cancer, one of which is Bone Marrow Transplantation.

The process of transplantation

In this process, bone marrow is taken from living donors whose body cells match that of the recipient's. The process is termed bone marrow harvest. Usually, bone marrow is harvested from the donor's hip bone under general anaesthesia. The required amount of marrow is collected by inserting a needle into the rear hip bone's cavity. The procedure is repeated several times in order to collect the required amount of marrow. As the hip bone contains large quantity of marrow, it is the right bone to collect the desired fluid. Normally, the donor experiences slight discomfort, but the risk involved in negligible.

After the affected bone marrow of the patient is destroyed by radiation or chemotherapy, the healthy marrow collected from the donor is infused into the patient's blood. This new marrow reaches the cavities of large bones and starts producing new blood cells.

Complications involved in the process

There are many complications that might arise from transplantation of bone marrow. Important among them are explained below.

A critical complication is the lack of engraftment. This means the transplanted stem cells fail to grow with in the receiver's body. In this case, the transplantation is considered a failure.

Another major complication that may occur at the early stages of recovery is Graft Versus Host Disease (GVHD). This is because receiver's immunity defence mechanism attacks transplanted marrow cells. To overcome this, patient is administered immunosuppressant medicines before the transplant. GVHD is curable but in extreme conditions, this can be life threatening.

Another probable complication is Veno-occlusive Disease which involves the kidney or the liver wherein build up of dead cells block the blood vessels of kidney or liver.

Other minor complications are bleeding and infection, which can easily be controlled with suitable drugs.

How Well a Patient Survives Bone Marrow Transplant?

The survival rate of bone marrow transplant patients depends on various factors. Usually factors such as the quality of treatment given, patient's mental and psychological condition and precautions taken after the transplant decide the bone marrow transplant survival rate. Studies have shown that it is anywhere between 70% and 98%.

The high survival rate can be attributed to factors such as the type of transplant; degree of matching between the donor's and recipient's cells, patient's age and health condition or the patient's genes. Bone marrow transplantation survival rate is also attributed to reasons like type of chemotherapy received before the transplant and most importantly improved quality of anti-rejection medicines that are available now.

Sunday, September 18, 2011

Bone Cancer Treatment

There are a variety of methods which can help treat bone cancer. Depending on the extent of the tumor, cancer location, severity of the condition the doctor recommends treatment for bone cancer.

Bone Cancer Treatment Options
Patients generally have to undergo surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy for treatment of bone cancer. The treatment may either be individually or may be a combination of the all the three, depending on the extent of bone cancer.

Surgery – Treatment of Bone Cancer
Surgery is the most common method for treating bone cancer and it is done when the tumor is big and has to be removed completely. Surgery is resorted to when the entire bone and the surrounding parts of the bone creates problems for the patient. A pathologist generally examines the complete bone to check for any further tumor growth. If the tumor is not removed completely, then the cells may slowly start growing and it can affect the entire area covering the bone and the surrounding areas of the bones. There are greater chances of recurrence of bone cancer; hence the surgery needs to be done with care.

In the past, patients had to undergo amputations for removal of bone cancer. However, with the introduction of new and sophisticated techniques, it is possible to get rid of a tumor. If the tumor has not spread to the entire bone, it can be easily scraped and a smaller bone graft can be placed.

Bone grafting for replacing the bone
A smaller tumor can be addressed with a smaller bone graft. However, if the bone has been damaged considerably, the surgeon will have to go for a larger graft, which may be either a bone implant.

Chemotherapy for stopping further growth of cancer cells
The patient is next referred for chemotherapy as this helps in preventing further growth of cancer cells. Generally, the medical oncologist will suggest chemotherapy prior to bone surgery so that the tumor shrinks in size. This makes the surgery easier and the success rate is much higher. Chemotherapy may also be suggested after the surgery to prevent further growth of cancer cells.

Chemotherapy sessions have proven to be very effective in killing cancer cells. The only drawback is that at times even healthy cells may be killed. Patients may experience giddiness, nausea, hair loss, extreme tiredness after the chemotherapy sessions.

Radiation for killing cancer cells
Radiation helps in killing the bone cancer cells and this is done in some doses. The therapy takes few weeks to months. The type of radiation and the dosage varies with the type of cancer. This is indeed a very effective treatment for bone cancer.

Bone Cancer Treatment – Possible side-effects
All of us will agree that every treatment may have some side effects or the other. Some of the side effects in the treatment of bone cancer are infection in the bone, cancer recurrence, damage to the surrounding areas etc. This is when the doctor refers the patient to a bone rehabilitation specialist for occupational therapy sessions. The patient definitely finds an improvement in the overall strength and confidence levels.